Michael revisits the hot issue of dating outside of your race, class, religion or age bracket. And recently, why does it seem like younger women are more interested in older men, while older women turn their eyes towards more youthful men?
One of the most powerful things I can do for my students is work to promote reading for fun and helping students find books that they will enjoy.
Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories just perished.
The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example (Toulouse 1967, 1969a). The same bottle could have been recycled and reused many times for many years before finally being discarded - entire or broken (Busch 1987).
But any technique, once developed, can be used right up to the present - as many collectors know who have been so unfortunate as to rely too heavily on a popular termination date as sure evidence of true antiquity..." (Toulouse 1969b).
In short, there was (and is) nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle.3.
It is unlikely that this bottle was made during the same era, but instead was reused for a lengthy period or otherwise retained until broken or discarded.
Pontiled base fragments could also be from later produced "specialty" bottles which are described below.5.
)Reuse, of course, does not change the manufacturing date of the bottle itself, but care must be exercised when using the known date of one or a few bottles to date other items found from the same context.
The bottle pictured to the right has a Wait's Liver and Kidney Bitters label pasted over the embossing of a Star Kidney and Liver Bitters bottle!
(The two products were from separate companies which were cross-town [Sacramento, CA.] rivals during the late 19th to early 20th century.
As Berge (1980) noted in referring to bottles, the "..of manufacture of glass containers provides observable attributes which seem to be very useful in a classification of these artifacts." Thus, this page.
This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle.
When a likely or known "older" item is found in a known "newer" site it is referred to as deposition lag.